10 Common diseases in the summer - and how to prevent them with self-care
The heat and humidity of the Brazilian summer cause the appearance or the increase of the number of cases of some systemic diseases and of skin.
"The combination of sun, sweat, sea or pool water and more exposed body, due to the use of less clothes, makes it more susceptible to evils that are not so recurrent during the rest of the year. In addition, the climate is conducive to the proliferation of vectors of diseases, such as mosquitoes, and of etiological agents such as fungi and bacteria, "explains Joana D'arc Gonçalves, infectologist at the Alliance Oncology Institute.
With self-care measures, such as attention to nutrition and hydration, for correct information on health and maintenance of good hygiene habits and responsible use of medicines, it is possible to avoid or minimize the damages of such conditions.
The infectious agent Joana, general practitioner Luiz Henrique Gonçalves Palma, Hosp ital São Luiz Jabaquara, and the dermatologist Valeria Stagi, of the Hospital Oeste D'Or, list the most common diseases in the summer and clarify what each of us can do on a day to day basis to avoid them.
"Mycoses are caused by fungi, which like hot and humid environments to proliferate. Summer is the ideal time for this, "says Luiz Henrique. The most common mycoses are the chilblains between the toes and the dermatophytosis, which affects areas of folds, especially in the groin, armpits and neck. appearance of white or red patches and the intense itchy sensation on the spot.
The best way to avoid mycoses is to be careful to keep the skin always dry.When leaving the pool or sea, thoroughly dry the body with a if possible, change the bikini, swimsuit, trunks or shorts you are wearing when dry. If sweating is the problem, it is best to remove excess moisture from the skin with tissue or tissue clothing of natural tissues, such as cotton, that allow the skin to "breathe."
If mycoses arise, they can be treated with talcum powder and antifungal creams or ointments easily found in pharmacies. assurance of the diagnosis.In addition, if symptoms persist after use of the products, the doctor should be consulted.
Pityriasis versicolor, also called beach mycosis, is caused by fungi and characterized by white chickpeas in the body, especially in the back.
Heat and moisture lead to the condition, but there is a genetic factor involved. This is what dermatologist Valeria tells us: "You have to have the natural predisposition to develop pityriasis versicolor. Hot and humid weather makes it appear, but only in certain people. That is why some never manifest the disease, while others encounter "
Because it is genetic, it is difficult to avoid pityriasis versicolor, but it is possible to deal with it with ease once you know what it is. what is. The treatment is done with topical or oral antifungal. A dermatologist can indicate how it should be administered, because as Valeria points out, "the area of affected skin is larger than the area of the spots."
Sweat and sun exposure (even if not there is apparent sweating) make the body lose much fluid in the summer. In day-to-day running or in the mood for tanning on the beach and in the pool, many people do not realize this and end up dehydrated to the point where they need to go to an emergency hospital service to recover.This can be avoided with very simple self-care: drinking water, lots of water. Experts recommend the intake of at least three liters throughout the day in the summer and on the hottest days of the other seasons.
Excessive and unprotected exposure to the sun, especially at times when its ultraviolet rays are stronger (from 10am to 4pm), can lead to insulation. Its symptoms are increased body temperature - which can reach 40 ° C -, fever, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting.
Avoiding sunstroke is very easy. Just protect yourself adequately from the sun with hats or caps and clothes that cover a large part of the body, and avoid getting under it at critical times. Keeping well hydrated is also key.
Once again, unprotected exposure to the sun is the great villain of the body in the summer. Burns occur due to the lack of use of sunscreen and to remain under the sun from 10h to 16h, times of highest incidence of UVA and UVB rays.
Depending on the degree of exposure, burns may be first degree, characterized by redness of the skin, and second degree, when blisters appear. There are also phytophotodermatoses, which are dark patches caused by the combination of lemon juice (or other citrus fruit) or perfume on the skin and exposure to the sun.
Sunscreen and correct skin cleansing are your best friends for the burns do not take time. In cream or lotion, the protector should be applied on the skin daily, even if you go stay in your normal day to day work, since the sun's rays are present everywhere, and reapplied every two hours.
In addition, when handling lemon, you should thoroughly wash your hands and face after contact.
Agents causing food poisoning - bacteria, viruses and parasites - also have a preference for hot weather to thrive. They settle more easily on raw or white meats (fish and chicken) and eggs, but quickly spread by the other foods in the heat. Its symptoms are nausea, stomach cramps, vomiting and diarrhea.
"To avoid food poisoning, you have to be very careful when eating in the summer, especially outside the home," warns Joana. "The factors to be considered when going to a restaurant per kilo, for example, are how long the food has been exposed and how many people have gone through it. It is normal for them to talk while they line their dishes, spreading contamination agents over If you can avoid going to the place after many hours it is open, it is better. " Larva migrans, also popularly known as geographic beetle, is a disease that is leaving an irregular risk by the body, like if it were the outline of a map - hence its popular nickname.
The most common form of catching geographic is by the contact of a chill or wound with the sand contaminated by larvae present in the dog or cat feces. Its treatment is simple, made with the use of a controlled antiparasitic ointment (with red stripe).
Preventing chilblains and wounds, avoid the geographic bug, because with the whole skin there will be no entrance door for the larva. And if you are a dog and cat owner, try to take him regularly to the vet to make sure the animal has no parasites.
Year after year, dengue fever is a concern in Brazil. The mosquito Aedes aegypti, vector of disease transmission, likes standing water to lay its eggs and develop its larvae. Since our summer is quite rainy, the formation of puddles and the accumulation of water in places such as plant bowls and empty tires is recurrent - and an invitation to the Aedes.
Good hygiene habits are the best prevention against dengue. No standing water should be tolerated, everything should be dry after rain or hose baths. In personal dealings, Joana recommends: "Wear light and light clothing, because the mosquito prefers dark cloths, and repellent all over the body."
After diving in the sea or in the pool, the hearing aid wetting facilitates the entry of bacteria and viruses that cause otitis, an infection that causes ear pain, and in severe cases, fever and vomiting.
The ideal to avoid it is to wear ear protectors when entering the water. As this is not always possible, the region should be dried with swabs as soon as it leaves the sea or pool, making the region less friendly to the agents.
Sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses that can cause swelling of the face, yellow discharge, a stuffy nose, and severe pain on the face. It is possible to treat and prevent sinusitis from getting worse with some care: Treatment and prevention of sinusitis The first step we should take to treat and also to prevent sinusitis is to do the nasal lavage with saline solution.
Mammography is a radiological exam for breast evaluation, done with an X-ray machine called a mammograph. It can identify benign lesions and cancers, which usually present as nodules, or calcifications. This test is used for early detection of breast cancer before it is even clinically identified by palpation.