Vaccine for 15 years? Understanding the importance of vaccination in adolescence
When you have a child, parents already know that in the first years of life the child should take a series of vaccines, the first in the maternity. Up to two years of age the vaccination schedule is intense, with the administration of at least 26 vaccines. As pediatric consultations are more frequent in the first years of life, there is always a reminder of the correct times to apply vaccines as part of disease prevention. But as the child grows, doctor visits become rarer and the need for immunization is forgotten.
With the advent of adolescence, life becomes more intense. Many changes happen at the same time, both physical and psychological. Young people spend more time away from home and their parents, engaging in school, sports, arts and especially social activities. Their overall health is great, they do not usually get sick often. By all these factors, doctor visits become scarce and vaccine guidelines as well. Yes, there is a vaccine calendar for the adolescent!
Everyone remembers that at age 5 the person who applied the last childhood vaccine said: "now only 10 years from now!". But things have changed. Medicine has evolved and the number of vaccines has increased greatly, creating vaccines for young people, adults and the elderly. It is no longer until the age of 15 that the adolescent has to take a vaccine.
According to the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics (SBP) and the Brazilian Society of Immunization (SBIm), the adolescent immunization schedule consists of several vaccines. the main ones being dpaT, HPV, Influenza and Meningitis AC-W135-Y, for those who have the complete childhood calendar.
The well-known "15-year-old vaccine" is dpaT. It protects against tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis. It is not available in health centers, only in private clinics. In SUS, dT is found, which provides protection against tetanus and diphtheria. Those who may resort to vaccination clinics are advised to do so, as a worldwide epidemic of pertussis is currently occurring, a disease formerly known as a long cough.
The quadrivalent meningitis vaccine, or AC-W135-Y, is only available in private clinics, protecting against these four types of meningococcus. Being young in Brazil, few adolescents have ever been immunized and due to the low frequency of visits to the doctor few are aware of its existence. In the impossibility of administering this vaccine, the use of a vaccine of meningitis C.
The other vaccine of the adolescence is the vaccine against the HPV, causes cancer of cervix, vagina, penis, anus, mouth, pharynx and larynx, in addition to genital warts. Used globally for years and released in the 9-26 age label for both sexes, the quadrivalent vaccine began to be offered by the SUS in this year 2014, only for girls aged 11 to 13 years. In the year 2015 will also include 10-year-old girls. For those who are not entitled to vaccination at health posts and in schools, it is recommended that they do so at private clinics, including young men. The bivalent vaccine is very effective against cancer and is indicated in package leaflets for women aged 10 years and over.
The influenza vaccine, known as Influenza, is also recommended for all adolescents, although it is not part of the SUS?
For the adolescents who did not complete the vaccine regimen in childhood or with an unknown history, the following vaccines are also recommended: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Viral Triple (measles) , rubella and mumps), Varicella (chicken pox) and Yellow Fever (for endemic regions).
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