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4 Types of cancer caused by viruses

4 Types of cancer caused by viruses

Science incessantly seeks ways to contain the progress of the emergence of diverse in the world population. And there are some tumors that can be avoided if their causes are treated correctly, such as cancers arising from viruses:

HPV (Human papilloma virus)

Uterine and genital cervical cancer

Preventive gynecological examinations can identify the appearance of genital warts and uterine cervix before they even become cancer. "The removal of these warts solves the problem," says the oncologist Sérgio Fortier, of the São Camilo Hospitals Network in São Paulo. of the nasopharynx

The process of transformation of the virus into cancer takes place through several mutations in the cell, as in the case of nasopharyngeal cancer. "The chronic infection caused by the virus ends up generating inflammations and successive mutations, which tighten the trigger for the development of cancer in the cell infected by the virus," explains the oncologist Danielle Ferreira Neves of Oncoclínica.

Prevention

The preventive measure most recommended for HPV is the use of condoms. This is because most of the time, contagion occurs through unprotected sexual intercourse.

In addition, the HPV vaccine is an interesting way to prevent the disease. There are two HPV vaccines approved and registered by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) and commercially available: the quadrivalent vaccine, which provides protection against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18. The other option is the bivalent vaccine, which provides protection against HPV 16 and 18.

Hepatitis B and C

Hepatic carcinoma (liver cancer)

Infection with hepatitis B and C virus can lead to chronic, developmentally related hepatitis of cirrhosis of the liver. Similarly, cases of liver cirrhosis may be associated with the development of liver cancer. According to the Ministry of Health, about 50% of patients with hepatic carcinoma have cirrhosis.

Prevention

Hepatitis B

Prevention of hepatitis B can be made from the hepatitis B vaccine available in the SUS. In addition, effective control of blood banks is still necessary through serological screening. It is important to avoid sharing nail pliers, razor blades, toothbrushes, drug equipment, just as the use of condoms in sexual relationships is essential.

Hepatitis C

There is no vaccine for the prevention of hepatitis C, but there are other forms of prevention: screening in blood banks and vaccination centers. donation of semen to ensure the distribution of uninfected biological material; screening of donors of solid organs such as heart, liver, lung and kidney; screening of donors of cornea or skin; compliance with infection control practices in hospitals, laboratories, dental offices, hemodialysis services; treatment of infected individuals, when indicated; abstinence or decreased use of alcohol; not exposure to other substances that are toxic to the liver, such as certain drugs.

HIV

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Lymphomas are malignant neoplasms (cell tumor growth) that originate in lymph nodes (ganglia), very infection. "In HIV-positive patients receiving adequate treatment and having a good immune response, the incidence of cancer is similar to that of HIV-negative patients," says the oncologist.

Prevention

To avoid transmission, it is recommended to use a condom during sexual intercourse, use of disposable syringes and needles, previous testing on blood to be transfused, and wearing gloves when handling potentially contaminated wounds or liquids. Pregnant women should be tested for HIV and begin prenatal care as soon as possible.

In the invasion, some viruses mix their genetic code with that of the host cell in order to be able to use that metabolism and produce In this process, something can go wrong and the cell stops functioning properly, turning into a cancer cell, "says Sérgio.

He also points out that, as many viruses weaken the immune system, the case of HIV , some cancer cells end up escaping and developing. Usually the correct thing is for these cells to be destroyed by immunity, so the importance of properly treating viruses.


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