6 Attitudes that help to leave your skin free of blemishes
Clear or dark, no skin is stain free. "They may be hyperchromic (darker than skin color) or hypochromic (lighter than skin color), which indicates, respectively, a greater or lesser amount of melanin in the region," explains dermatologist esthetician Larissa Viana.
She and the dermatologist Gustavo Alonso, from the Samaritan Hospital of São Paulo, highlight the main types of hyperchromic:
- Melanoses or solar lentigos: are sun spots. Dark and rounded, they mainly appear on the hands, arms and neck
- Melasmas: spots on the face, especially on cheeks, forehead and forehead, of multifactorial cause. It is related to the hormonal part (pregnancy, contraceptive pill use), sun exposure and genetics
- Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation or residual hyperchromic: appear after the inflammatory process of acne, insect sting or burn. Initially, they are reddish, and over time may become brown
- Chloasma: pregnancy stains. Some hormonal changes in pregnant women can stimulate the production of melanin and cause brown spots on the face
- Phytophotodermatoses: spots caused by the combination of contact with fruits such as lemon, orange, fig and cashew on exposure to the sun. Among the hypochromic ones, special attention should be paid to spots of solar leucoderma, white freckles that mainly occur in the arms and legs and are caused by excessive exposure to the sun.
How to avoid or ameliorate them
Attitudes and day-to-day habits can be decisive for treating existing skin blemishes and preventing new brands from appearing.
1- Use sunscreen every day
"Sunscreen helps to decrease the production of melanin, which prevents the appearance of new spots, and also helps in the protection of the DNA of the cells in relation to the dangerous effects of UVA and UVB rays, softening those already existing, "says Gustavo.
Larissa points out that ultraviolet radiation reaches the skin even in the shade and on cloudy days, so the protector solar is needed daily. She recommends, according to the Brazilian Society of Dermatology (SBD), products with a minimum sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 and protection against UVA rays. "There are also protectors with bleaching principles, such as vitamin C, and specific acids that treat the skin simultaneously," he suggests.
2 - Do not poke the skin
Gustavo gives special importance to breaking this habit. "You should not prick the skin, especially the pimples," he says. "All inflammation can cause staining, and squeezing pimples causes a lot of inflammation, which can generate nasty marks."
3- Have a carotenoid-rich diet
Papaya, orange, carrot, pumpkin, mango and apricot are some of carotenoid-rich foods that should be included in the menu to help prevent stains related to sun exposure as they decrease the oxidation caused by ultraviolet radiation. "They reduce inflammation caused by the sun, which activates hyperpigmentation," explains Larissa.
4- Use creams with cellular renewers and melanin inhibitors
These cosmetics are, alongside sunscreens, the main allies in protection and maintenance of skin whitening. "The classic active ingredients are acids, such as retinoic, glycolic, ferulic, kojic, and ascorbic-vitamin C," says Larissa. "Hydroquinone is the oldest and most powerful depigmentant, and its combination with acids is perfect as long as you get medical help."Treating the origin of the stain is also necessary, as Gustavo recalls: "Some stains are caused or accentuated by inflammation, so treating the problem with anti-inflammatories helps in whitening the skin."
5- Know how to combine treatment creams and solar protectors
In order for the treatment cream to be most effective and the sunscreen fulfills its function of preventing UVA and UVB rays, it is always necessary to follow the following order:
Wash the face
To tone the skin
- Apply the treatment cream
- Wait a few minutes for its absorption
- Apply the sunscreen
- Finish with repellent and makeup, if necessary.
- 6- Consult dermatologist
- O Dermatologist is the specialist who can accurately diagnose the causes of blemishes and indicate the most suitable products to treat them. In addition, it is only in his office that chemical peels with acid can be made, "very efficient for the treatment of dark patches of skin," according to Larissa. And oral medications to restore the skin from damage caused by UVA and UVB rays or to decrease the action of inflammatory proteins that cause characteristic spots of melasma to appear may only be used under medical prescription.
Photodynamic therapy was first used in the year 1900 by Raab. This treatment consists of the use of a chemical substance that can be applied by the mouth, vein or through products in the form of cream or solution. Such a product has the ability to penetrate into tissues / cells that have changes in their metabolism, such as, cancers and some diseases like acne, hidradenite, folliculitis, and others.
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