Does dyslexia have a cure? Understanding the disorder
In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM-5, dyslexia falls within a broader category, termed "Disorders "
Symptoms of dyslexia
According to the manual, its diagnosis is made shortly after the literacy phase is completed and requires the identification of at least one of the following symptoms:
Word reading is done inaccurately or slowly, requiring a lot of effort. The child may, for example, read isolated words out loud, incorrectly (or slow and hesitant); often tries to guess the words and has difficulty spelling them;
2. Difficulty understanding the meaning of what is read. It can read accurately, but it does not understand the sequence, the relations, the inferences or the deeper senses of what is read;
3. Difficulty in spelling, being identified, for example, addition, omission or substitution
4. Difficulty with written expression, which can be identified multiple errors of grammar or punctuation in sentences; employment or inadequate organization of paragraphs; However, the simple presence of one or more symptoms does not mean that the child has dyslexia, since these can also be due to other factors such as: deficiency (intellectual and sensory, for example) (DSM-5) considers that, in addition to the aforementioned symptoms, it is necessary to consider the role of the psychosocial system in the development of psychosocial disorders.
Persistence of difficulty for at least 6 months (despite targeted intervention) Academic skills substantially and qualitatively below expected for chronological age (confirmed by individual tests and comprehensive clinical assessment)
Difficulties begin during the school years, but may not manifest completely until academic such as poor performance in timed tests
reading or writing complex or longer texts with a short deadline
- high overload of academic requirements
- The difficulties are not explained by deficiencies, neurological disorders, psychosocial adversity, inadequate academic instruction or lack of proficiency in the language of academic instruction.
- Risk factors for dyslexia are still observed in the early phase, when difficulties in phonological awareness and letter recognition are observed. Later, the difficulty in decoding words may compromise other aspects related to reading (spelling and fluency), written expression and, in part, mathematics.
- It is emphasized that academic changes are the most evident symptoms and, therefore, easily identified by parents and teachers. However, it is also necessary to consider other aspects that usually affect children with dyslexia, among which they deserve to be mentioned: impairment of oral language, symptoms of inattention, difficulty in motor coordination, impairment of executive functions, alteration of auditory processing and psychiatric comorbidities (such as depression, anxiety).
- Multidisciplinary Assessment
- The diagnosis is requested when there is a need for an award to assist educators, therapists and parents of people with Dyslexia and / or other Learning Disorders and is performed by a multidisciplinary team composed mainly by doctors, speech therapists, psychologists and psychopedagogues. In addition, the individual is referred to clinical exams, such as audiometry, central auditory processing, vision tests, etc.
Whatever the limitations in the learning process, intervention is always necessary. The school alone can not keep up with these children, because it is necessary to work on the altered aspects in a therapeutic way. For these children, adolescents, and even under-performing adults, proper intervention will also help in the low self-esteem they present. It is also necessary to develop strategies to improve student performance such as: respecting the learning pace, highlighting its strengths and never saying that it is slow or unintelligent, working with activities that develop phonological awareness in the classroom, encouraging self-confidence and avoid exposing the child's difficulties in front of colleagues as in reading aloud.
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