First baby born in in vitro fertilization aided with stem cells
Zain Rajani was born in Canada in April, a baby who can change how in vitro fertilization is done, increasing her success rates. The method, developed by the OvaScience Fertility Clinic, uses stem cell parts to improve ovules, increasing the chances that older women will have healthier embryos.
To better understand, you need to first explain what happens to the woman's eggs over time. Every woman has her ovarian follicles all produced early in life, so they grow old along with them. However, scientists have realized that women have in their ovaries stem cells from unformed ovules, and have decided to try to place the mitochondria of these cells in the collected eggs for in vitro fertilization.
Mitochondria are cellular organelles that take care of the energy production of the cell and are important for the embryo to survive and divide until implantation, when it receives energy from the mother. This exchange, therefore, causes the older eggs to behave as new, resulting in embryos with higher success rates in implantation and development in the early days.
In all four embryos were produced using this method, but only one developed in a way that made doctors comfortable to transfer it. Despite this, the baby has grown well, and his mother Natasha Rajani, 34, who had low-quality eggs, can give birth to her son. For the geneticist Ciro Martinhago, director of the department of medical genetics at SalomãoZoppi Diagnostics and director of Chromossome Genomic Medicine (SP), the method is not exactly a method. novelty, since some scientists have been testing the exchange of egg mitochondria, but using the organelles of newer eggs from donors. "The difference here is the use of a woman's own material, which increases the complexity, since it is necessary to remove tissue from the ovaries, making the process invasive," explains the specialist.
Furthermore, he points out that the procedure does not prevent women over 35 or 38 from having babies with genetic anomalies. The DNA of the nucleus of the ovum is also aged and with that, they can bring more? Defects? to the embryo. These problems can increase a child's chances of being born with a syndrome such as Down syndrome, but also increase the rates of miscarriage, as they can cause that embryo to fail to become a fetus. , this type of procedure is prohibited in Brazil, since the law does not allow the manipulation of embryos. The process is also not allowed in the United States because it is a gene therapy.
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We call Braxton Hicks contractions or training contractions painless uterine contractions, often perceived as an arrhythmic "tightening" or "hardening" of the uterus. They were first described in 1872 by the English physician John Braxton Hicks. These contractions can be identified very early by the eighth week of pregnancy and increase with the progression of gestational age.