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Know the 10 biggest risk factors for diseases

Know the 10 biggest risk factors for diseases

A set of studies recently published in the scientific journal The Lancet pointed out that although people are living longer, quality of life has declined. The main reason for this scenario is the adoption of unhealthy lifelong habits and the coexistence with diseases in old age, especially the chronic ones.

Faced with this scenario, the research listed the 10 greatest risk factors for diseases. Note that all can be controlled or avoided with simple measures, and therefore more and more, health agencies and professionals have been working to end the mentality that physicians should only be looked for to signal problems. "To reduce spending and improve the quality of life of the population, nothing better than prevention," says pneumologist Ricardo Luiz de Melo, University Hospital of Brasília. Hypertension is a silent disease, that is, when it has symptoms, it may have caused irreversible damage to the body, says Claudio Miguel Rufino, MD, of the São Paulo Medical School of Unifesp. . According to him, the work of blood vessels under abnormal pressure favors a series of complications that can culminate in infarction, stroke or even death. Therefore, it is recommended to measure blood pressure once a year or more frequently when there are cases of people with the disease in the family. Balanced diet and regular exercise are also effective measures for the control and prevention of hypertension.

Smoking

According to pulmonologist Ricardo, it is normal for people to associate smoking only with lung cancer, but this is not the only consequence due to smoking. "Mouth cancer, bladder cancer, uterine cancer, heart attack, bronchitis, stroke and countless other diseases are linked to cigarette smoking," he says. Thus, the sooner the habit is stopped, the greater the chance of improving the quality of life. It is worth remembering that the benefits of abandoning addiction are not only reflected in the future. "It is possible to notice the improvement in the taste of food and a higher respiratory resistance in the first few days without a cigarette."

Alcoholism

Alcoholism usually has the liver as the main target organ, causing cirrhosis. However, excessive intake can lead to problems such as gastritis and even psychiatric conditions. Dependence is not only related to the frequency with which an individual consumes alcoholic beverages, but also with the quantity. Thus, even drinking once a week, a person can be considered a victim of the disease if there is no parameter of moderation. According to the general practitioner Claudio, because it is socially accepted, alcohol consumption begins to be encouraged by the family as a child.

Pollution in the home

It is impossible to eliminate all the agents that trigger respiratory problems, such as allergic rhinitis, in an urbanized city, so we should at least keep the cleanliness of the home up to date. "External pollution is also deposited in the house and we ourselves are responsible for the accumulation of dust, dust mites and hairs, some of the main villains when it comes to respiratory health," explains pulmonologist Ricardo.

Low consumption of fruit

"Fruits are easily digested natural foods and a source of essential vitamins and minerals for the body. "says general practitioner Alfredo Salim Helito of the Sírio-Libanês Hospital. According to the expert, those who consume few fruits tend to make room for unhealthy, industrialized and greasy foods. Over time, poor nutrition can not only promote problems such as diabetes, but can also lead to the development of cancer in the digestive tract, such as stomach cancer or bowel cancer. Nutritionists recommend eating at least three servings of fruit daily.

Obesity

Although it has a genetic influence, obesity is also linked to living habits and the increasing number of victims of the problem shows that more and more people are eating a dieting diet and sedentary lifestyle. "The disease is the gateway to heart problems, diabetes, joint problems and vascular insufficiency," explains the general practitioner Claudio. Prevention, in turn, begins in childhood, learning how to put together a balanced meal and knowing how to make healthy choices even outside the home.

Diabetes

There are two types of diabetes, one that appears early in childhood and has no known cause (type 1 diabetes) and one that usually develops in adulthood and is directly linked to lifestyle habits (type 2 diabetes). While the former demands control early on, the latter is not always discovered early. "It increases the risk of complications such as kidney failure, erectile dysfunction, heart attack, among other problems, and makes it difficult to control the disease," explains general clinician Alfredo. To prevent it, nothing like a diet with lots of vegetables and regular exercise.

Low child weight

"Child malnutrition poses a number of difficulties in adulthood because it is at this stage that our immune and neurological system matures, "warns the general practitioner Alfredo. With the body's defenses weakened, the individual becomes more susceptible to infectious diseases and impaired cognition, finds difficulty in learning and retaining information. It is worth remembering that chubby child is not synonymous with well-fed child. "It may be deficient in a number of nutrients and still present a good weight if your diet is not balanced," he adds.

Environmental pollution

Breathing polluted air brings numerous toxic substances into our bodies, favoring respiratory problems. However, according to the pulmonologist Ricardo, the diagnosis of lung cancer in non-smokers is increasing, which suggests that these residues also contribute to the disease. The more polluted the air also, the lower the amount of oxygen which, consequently, reduces the oxygenation of our organs and tissues. While no aggressive policy to end the problem is adopted, nasal lavage and home cleaning are recommended.

Sedentary

Want good reasons to start training? The sedentary lifestyle is responsible for numerous diseases such as diabetes, obesity and heart problems. With the slogan "I do not have time", however, the population has fled the exercises. The solution begins with enhancing health more than any other activity on the day. Then you just have creativity. Stop the car in a farther parking lot, get off the bus a few points before and opt for stairs rather than the lift are some ways to exercise without spending time. The ideal, however, is to perform a physical activity that combines muscle work with aerobic exercises regularly.


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