Know the most common types of skin cancers
Although skin cancer is the most frequent type, accounting for about 25% of all malignancies registered in Brazil, according to information from the National Cancer Institute (Inca), when detected early has high percentages of cure. The disease is more common in individuals over 40 years of age, being relatively rare in children and blacks, with the exception of those with previous skin diseases.
As the skin is the largest organ in the body and is considered quite heterogeneous, this type of cancer can present as a type of skin cancer. neoplasias (cell proliferation resulting in benign or malignant tumor). The most frequent are: basal cell carcinoma (or basal cell carcinoma), which according to the Inca is responsible for 70% of the diagnoses of skin cancer; epidermoid (or squamous cell) carcinoma in 25% of cases and melanoma, detected in 4% of patients. Fortunately, basal cell carcinoma, more frequent, is also the least aggressive.
According to dermatologist Albert Einstein Hospital, Mário Grinblat, basal cell carcinoma almost does not behave like cancer. "It's a tumor that has a very slow evolution, both laterality and depth," he says. It appears as a lesion or rough spot, which may bleed or not, and does not cause metastasis. Basal cell carcinomas originate from the epidermis and cutaneous appendages above the basal layer, such as hairs, for example. As well as the epidermoid, considered non-melanoma skin cancers, it presents high cure rates, mainly due to the ease of the early diagnosis.
Epidermoid carcinomas have their origin in epidermal keratinocytes (which present cubic, squamous or flat cells , with more keratin than the basal layer), so it is also known as squamous cell cancer or the prickly layer of the skin. This type is amenable to metastasis and has no local malignancy.
Non-melanoma skin cancer may present two types of diagnosis. Basal cell carcinoma is diagnosed through a slowly evolving lesion (sore or nodule). Epidermoid carcinoma also appears through a wound, however, which evolves rapidly and is accompanied by secretion and itching. In both cases, surgery is the most indicated treatment. However, depending on the extent, basal cell carcinoma can also be treated through topical medicine or radiotherapy.
Know the most common types of skin cancers - Photo: Getty Images
The third most frequent type, cutaneous melanoma, is a type of cancer that originates in melanocytes (cells that produce melanin, substance that determines skin color) and is predominant in white adults. Although it accounts for only 4% of skin cancers, melanoma is the most serious because of its high chance of metastasis and elevated lethality.
The prognosis of this type of cancer can be considered good if detected in the early stages. In recent years, there has been a great improvement in the survival of patients with melanoma, mainly due to the early detection of melanoma, not only through clinical exams but through dermoscopy, Mário explains. According to Inca data, in developed countries the average survival (estimated at five years) is 73%, while in developing countries it is 56%, and the world average is 69%.Melanoma can arise from normal skin or from a pigmented lesion. The manifestation of the disease in normal skin occurs from the appearance of a dark patch of irregular borders accompanied by itching and peeling.
In cases of a pre-existing pigmented lesion, there is an increase in size, a change in color and in the form of the lesion that presents irregular borders. Surgery is the most indicated treatment, however, radio and chemotherapy can also be used depending on the stage of the cancer.
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