Measuring fat percentage allows better assessment of changes in body
Worrying about weight alone during the weight loss process is not a good strategy. It is also important to note the percentage of fat. This will allow you to divide the body into two compartments that are lean mass, muscle, viscera, bone and blood, and fat mass, fat.
In this way, the evaluated will know exactly what happened and the teacher will power make all the necessary adjustments to ensure that everything is going the right way. One of the most common controversies that this assessment clarifies is the fact that someone trained and even then does not change the weight of the balance. If the person, for example, lost 2 pounds of fat, but increased 2 pounds of lean mass, the scale will not stir, but the whole composition has been modified for the better.
How to measure fat percentage
Both The main method to measure fat percentage is skinfolds and electrical bioimpedance.
The skin folds method is performed with a device called the adipometer, which is similar to a pliers and can measure the subcutaneous fat in millimeters through famous skinfolds. Important to make it clear that it does not directly measure total body fat, there is a procedure to find this body fat driven by protocols that have been validated by some researcher and give guidelines on how many and which are the skinfolds that must be measured to find the The percentage of fat is estimated using the sum of all the folds that the protocol requested and after that this value is used in an equation that will find the body density and then this result of the body density is used in another equation that will finally find the fat percentage.
The electric bioimpedance is performed by means of an apparatus that is able to send a low-voltage electrical stimulus, you feel nothing, that cross the hemispheres of the body and provides with this is the value of the body water quantity and then this value is used in another equation that estimates the fat percentage.
Ex are practically two types of bioimpedance, the bipolar and the four-pole. The bipolar is usually a balance that has electrodes in its base to send the electric stimulus from one leg to another or an apparatus that the evaluated one holds with both hands that sends the electric stimulation from one arm to the other. In the case of the tetrapolar, usually the patient is lying on a stretcher and electrodes are attached to the feet and hands to pass this stimulus throughout the body. The main difference between the machines is that the bipolar ones estimate how much the patient has to fat in the whole body evaluating only the lower limbs or only the upper limbs, and this increase the risk of error of the result. Therefore, if you are to use this method, give preference to the four-pole bioimpedance.
Precision of the methods
There are different ways of measuring the percentage of fat through the skin folds. The difference is from protocols, there are several authors that have validated protocols. Quietly, I can assure you that there are more than 50 protocols validated there, and each one of them has its peculiarities that involves how many folds were used to format the equation that will estimate the body fat and which was the studied population basically related to age and sex .
Then, at the time of carrying out these measures, the evaluator should opt for a protocol that is more appropriate to the evaluated profile. All of them will have a margin of error, so it is important to always use the same protocol or even method to allow comparisons to be accurate in reevaluations and thereby find out what really happened after a period of training and diet.The methods for measuring the percentage of fat that we have access to every day, both skinfolds and electrical bioimpedance, do not measure fat directly, so everyone has a margin of error that is on average 15%. The only way to know if fat is really that is to use a more advanced method like dexa, hydrostatic weighing or plestomography, but these are usually limited to the use of research that, by the way, validates those other methods that we have the most access. > Possible errors
In order to carry out any type of evaluation, it is necessary to take into account 3 principles, which are reproducibility, objectivity and trustworthiness. The latter is the most important, since he considers that for an evaluation to be faithful it is necessary to repeat these evaluations using the same method, same protocol, same equipment, same climatic conditions, same previous procedures on the part of those who are evaluated and preferably the same evaluator who above all needs to be very well trained to do this. Today the main differences between measurements are simply the failure to follow these recommendations.
In the biopedance a question that can not be forgotten is that fat is estimated by means of the amount of body water, so any change in the level of hydration before to perform the test will impair the results, so before taking the test it is recommended to follow some previous procedures such as not performing physical activity 24 hours before the test, not drinking alcohol 48 hours before the test, urinating 30 minutes before the test and do not use diuretic medications 7 days before the test.
From what I have heard from people who performed this test the previous procedures were not mentioned by the person who evaluates or if they were the one who was not able to follow the test and all this compromises more still the result.
As for the skinfolds, the problems usually occur due to the fact that the evaluated not seg procedures. In this case, the evaluated person does not appear in the appropriate suits making it difficult to carry out the measurements. Apart from this, we also run the risk of the equipment used in the test being of low quality or not being properly calibrated and also the risk of an inexperience of the evaluator.
This method of skinfolds requires a lot of training by the evaluator who must take courses specific to perform in this segment and the problem is that nowadays this does not have much control, because it was very easy to buy a adipometer, scale and a software and go out doing evaluation there.
Reference values of fat percentage
|Male - 20 to 29 years||Less than 5,||Very thin||Very thin||2%||5.3% - 9.3%||9.4% - 14.01%||14.02% - 17.5%|
|17.6% - 22.4%||22.5% - 29.2%||Greater than 29.3%||Male - 30 to 39 years||Less than 9.2%||9.3% - 14%||14.1%? 17.5%||17.6% - 20.6%|
|20.7% - 24.2%||24.3% - 30%||Greater than 30.1%||Male - 40-49 years||Less than 11.5%||11.6% -16.3%||16.4% -19.6%||19.7% - 22, 5%|
|22.6% - 26.2%||26.3% - 31.4%||Greater than 31.5%||Man - 50-59 years||Less than 12.9%||13% - 18.1%||18.2% -21.2%||21.3% - 24.2%|
|24.3% - 27.6%||27.7% - 32.4%||Greater than 32.5%||Male over 60||Less than 13%||13.1% - 18.5%||18.6% -22%||22.1% - 25%|
|25.1% - 28.4%||28.5% - 33.5%||Greater than 33.6%||Female - 20-29 years||Less than 10.7%||10.8% - 17%||17.1% -20.5%||20.6 % - 23.8%|
|23.9% - 27.6%||27.7% - 35.5%||Greater than 35.6%||Female - 30 to 39 years||Less than 13.3%||13.4% - 18%||18.1% - 21.8%||21.9% - 24.8%|
|24.9% 30%||30.1% - 35.8%||Greater than 35.9%||Female - 40-49 years||Less than 16.1%||16.2% - 21.4%||21.5% - 25.1%||25.2%? 28.3%|
|28.4% - 32.1%||32.2% - 37.7%||Greater than 37.8%||Female - 50-59 years||Less than 18.8%||18.9% - 25.1%||25.2% - 28.6%||28.7% -32.5%|
|32.6% 35.6%||35.7% - 39.6%||Greater than 39.7%||Female over 60||Less than 19.1%||19.2 % - 25%||25.1% - 29.5%||29.6% - 32.8%|
|32.9% - 36.7%||36.8% 4%||Greater than 40.5%|