Papanicolou could detect ovarian and endometrial cancer
Science Translational Medicine. In the first phase of the research, American and Brazilian tumor biopsies were collected. The material was subjected to DNA sequencing. By comparing it with the normal cell genetic code, the scientists identified 12 genes whose mutations indicate the incidence of tumors.
Following this analysis, the researchers sequenced DNA from cells from the test and were 100% successful at endometrial cancer and 41% of success for ovarian cancer. There was no false-positive result.
The new technique was dubbed PapGene and does not alter the non-invasive procedure of the Papanicolau; just aggregates the analysis of molecular genetics into cells of the ovary and body of the uterus that are taken to the region where the material is collected. Today, the Pap smear only detects cancer of the cervix, via analysis of the appearance of the cells, and HPV virus, its main cause.
According to the researchers, the research shows that it is possible to detect molecular changes via Papanicolau, allowing the early diagnosis of other types of cancer, especially the ovary, whose diagnosis is difficult and usually late.
Essential examinations that every woman needs to do
Visiting a gynecologist at least once a year should be part of the routine of every woman after the first menstruation. According to research by Uppsala University
Ce for Research and Development , regular Pap smears can save the lives of thousands of women with cervical cancer. The study found that the survival rate of women who had the cancer detected by the test was 92%, while those who were diagnosed by the symptom had a survival rate of only 66%. My Life has brought together experts in the subject to list the essential care and tests for each stage of women's life: At all ages
There are some routine exams that should be present throughout a woman's life: glycemia , total cholesterol and its fractions, triglycerides, creatine (evaluation of renal function), IGT and TGP (evaluation of liver function), blood count and urinalysis. "With the onset of puberty, the female reproductive system may suffer some complications, hence the importance of annual follow-up with a gynecologist," explains gynecologist Maria Luisa Nazar of the Edmundo Vasconcelos Hospital Complex. "I indicate vaccination against HPV infection, which is responsible for the transmission of condyloma and most cancers of the cervix and for hepatitis B," says pathologist Ana Leticia Daher, of the Delboni Auriemo Medicina Diagnostic. For the woman who has had the first sexual intercourse, a Pap smear should be on the list of routine exams. The gynecologist Maria Luisa also recommends transvaginal pelvic and breasts ultrasound, colposcopy, vulvoscopy, hybrid capture and blood tests. "They help prevent cervical lesions, fibroids, ovarian cysts, infections, endometriosis, among other problems," she explains.
At age 30
According to the pathologist Ana Leticia, diseases related to female genital tract are still the focus at this stage of life. "Therefore, oncoptic colpocitology, colposcopy and ultrasonography should be kept routine," he says. Screening for breast cancer with clinical examination and mammography may also be necessary in women with a history in the family. The pathologist Paulo Roberto orients to begin to make bone densitometry, an examination that allows to evaluate the presence of osteoporosis. In addition to these care, some professionals recommend special attention to the thyroid, a gland in the region of the neck that produces hormones important for women's health.At age 40
"The 40 years are a milestone, because at that age the mammogram becomes part of the female checkup," says gynecologist Maria Luisa. It is also important to add a cardiologic evaluation at this stage, since hormonal changes occur that may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
At age 50
With the onset of menopause, odds of osteoporosis are greater and bone densitometry is even more important. "The risk of post-menopausal women presenting with heart-related diseases is two to three times higher," says Ana Leticia. At this stage, the chances of cancer become greater. "Cancers of the breast, colon and uterine cervix are the most common," says oncologist Charles Padua.
At age 60
The tests are the same, but they need to be even more frequent. Cares for osteoporosis should be intensified with periodic bone densitometry. "In addition, going to the cardiologist for the prevention of hypertension and heart disease should be a rule," guides the pathologist Ana Leticia Ana. The other tests, such as cholesterol, blood glucose, calcium and blood count, can also be performed.
A new study published in the medical journal Circulation brings another reason to add omega-3 sources on the menu: this type of fat lowers the risk of developing cardiac arrhythmia. The analysis was led by a researcher at the Harvard School of Public Health . The specialists followed for 3 years 3,300 adults over 65 who underwent blood sampling for testing.
The researchers compared data from 2000 to 2008 and counted 114,657 visits of children under 18 to the emergency room of two hospitals - one in Boston, the other in Montreal, Canada - with flu-like symptoms. Scientists found that after 2006 - when the vaccine was first introduced in the United States for pre-school children - visits of children in this age group to the rooms in Boston compared with Montreal.