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Types of Depression: Know the Major

Types of Depression: Know the Major

When we think of depression, we always imagine a picture of great sadness, in which the person seeks only to be reclusive. However, whoever thinks that this picture is unique, there are several subtypes of depression.

"The symptoms of depression are practically the same regardless of their subtypes," says psychiatrist Mario Louzã, MD, from the University of Würzburg, Germany. What changes are other characteristics, such as its duration and other signs that accompany it. Learn more:

1. Depressive episode

A depressive episode is usually classified as a period of time in which the person exhibits a change in their behavior. According to psychiatrist Diego Freitas Tavares, a researcher in the Affective Disorders Program (GRUDA) of the Institute of Psychiatry of the Hospital das Clínicas of the University of São Paulo Medical School (IPQ-HC-FMUSP), a person experiencing a depressive episode presents symptoms of the depressive syndrome, such as:

  • Depressed mood
  • Lack of energy
  • Lack of initiative and will
  • Lack of pleasure
  • Changing sleep
  • Appetite change
  • Lentification of thought
  • Motor gradient

These frames tend to have a shorter duration, up to six months, without an intensification of the symptoms.

2. However, if the person begins to have recurrent depressive symptoms or maintains the symptoms of depression for more than six months with an intensification of the picture, it can be considered that she is experiencing a major depressive disorder. "This condition usually starts later in life after the age of 30 and responds better to treatment with medications," says Tavares.

Depressive disorder is usually a more serious condition and also has a strong relationship with genetic inheritance. In it there is a chemical change in the functioning of the brain, which can be triggered by a physical or emotional cause. Therefore, it is important to find the central cause of it, so that the treatment is more effective ?, says the psychiatrist Pérsio Ribeiro Gomes de Deus, technical director of health of the Psychological Hospital of Água Funda (SP). Bipolar Depression

Depression phases within bipolar disorder are also considered a subtype of depression. "There is type 1 bipolar depression, which is interspersed with episodes of euphoria (the so-called mania) and type 2, in which episodes out of depression have a slightly less intense euphoria," Louzã says. in the depression phase are the same as in a depressive episode. In the euphoric stages, the patient may present symptoms such as:


Occupation with various activities

Obsession with certain subjects

  • Increase of impulsivity
  • Increase of energy
  • Inattention
  • Hyperactivity
  • The person with a picture of mania generally thinks that it is well and healthy. "Type 1 cases can lead to such obvious brain activation that it culminates in pictures with delusions of grandeur," Tavares says.
  • In type 2 bipolar disorders, these phases are usually milder.
  • 4. Dysthymia

Dysthymia is a mild but persistent depressive disorder. "The person is able to follow his life, working and giving account of his daily activities, but they have a bad quality of life, being considered negative people most of the time," comments Gomes de Deus. The main symptoms

of this picture are bad mood, irritability, pessimism and social isolation.

The picture of dysthymia is often not diagnosed, as it is confused with bad mood and the way of being person's. However, when identified, dysthymia has rather treatment and usually improves with medication.

5. Atypical depression Usually the pictures of depression are usually melancholic, in which the patient presents mainly sadness and thoughts of death, hopelessness and uselessness. "However, depression may be atypical when there is a predominance of

lack of energy, tiredness, excessive sleep gain, and apathetic mood," says psychiatrist Tavares.

6. Seasonal depression

The greatest example of seasonal depression is the winter-related sadness episode . "These pictures are rare in places like Brazil, where the sun appears all year round, but may occur due to the low exposure to sunlight that occurs in places of higher latitude", contextualiza Louzã.

There are other types of seasonal depressions, linked to the times of the year. "The holiday season is a time when these depressions occur a lot, due to the period of reflection," says Gomes de Deus.

Watch out for periods of sadness of discouragement that occur in specific periods of time - whenever it is or always close to a specific date, for example 7. Postpartum Depression Postpartum depression is a specific type of depression with definite cause: due to the drop in hormone levels during pregnancy. "During pregnancy the body enters into a very large hormonal balance, and the abrupt fall of these substances can cause the body to resent, reacting with a depressive condition," says Gomes de Deus. Psychotic Depression

Psychotic depression combines symptoms of sadness with less typical ones, such as delusions and hallucinations. "The person has certain convictions that he is in a state of ruin or that his body is rotting, having hallucinations in which he hears deprecating voices, or he sees signs of death coming to him," exemplifies Tavares. severe depression, but it is rare. However, anyone can develop it, and not only who has a history of psychosis in the family.

Other types of pictures linked to depression

Reactive depression: Reactive depression is a classification no longer used but symptoms depressive disorders linked to a specific event. She was usually treated with psychotherapy instead of medication. ? We now know that this type of condition or classification is inadequate, since the fact that the patient has presented some previous psychological event does not indicate whether the disease is cerebral or psychological and whether it requires drug treatment or not ?, points out Diego Tavares

Premenstrual Tension: Most women have depressive symptoms during PMS, and although this phase is not considered a depression in itself, it is a related picture. "Do not they constitute a depressive episode per se, since they are of short duration and do not have the intensity of a depressive picture?", Considers Mario Louzã.

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